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Bohemian Crystal in the Ottoman Palace

The artwork of glassmaking goes again thousands of years, but the discovery that the addition of minerals like quartz and lead produced glass that was far more clear, refracted and reflected light when decorated with reduce designs, and made a pleasant ringing sound when tapped had to wait till 1708. That was the year that Michael Miller perfected crystal glass, opening a brand new era in European glassmaking. Crystal glass, which was more substantial than odd glass and tougher to produce, might be used to make way more spectacular objects.
The growth of this new sort of glass started in Central Europe in the seventeenth century. It was named after natural rock crystal, which in medieval occasions had been regularly carved into decorative objects, a few of which could be seen in European museums. In medieval Europe, there were two essential facilities of glass making and rock crystal carving: Venice and Bohemia. Venetian glassmaking went again to very early instances. In distinction, the area, often known as Bohemia (right now the Czech Republic) in the Austro-Hungarian Empire , solely became well-known as a center of glassmaking within the publish-16th century, because of its rich deposits of raw materials, including potassium, lead and manganese, and extensive forests which offered the firewood required for the kilns and crucibles. Another issue was the area’s strategic place on significant trade roads.
Venice had a substantial head begin over Bohemia, and its craftsmen had lengthy excelled in methods of manufacturing coloured glass, reduce decoration, and glass engraving. When the secrets of those strategies have been found by Bohemian craftsmen, the Bohemian glass industry finally overtook Venice in the 19th century. Bohemian crystal turned far superior to that of Venice in terms of its brilliance. At the tip of the 18th century, Bohemia had begun to provide opal glass in imitation of porcelain, and this, combined with its clear glass dyes and flawless crystal glass, carried the Bohemian glass business to new heights during the first half of the nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, Bohemia exported crystal glass to many European countries, primarily Russia, Spain, Portugal, and Poland, and even additional afield to North America. Although the Napoleonic Wars brought on central European commerce to droop within the early 19th century, the trade was soon flourishing once extra, producing an revolutionary vary of crystal glassware. Among these should be talked about the extraordinary portraits engraved on crystal glass by Dominik Blemann (1800-1856). The golden age of Bohemian glass, which resumed in the 1830s saw Ottoman Turkey and Persia become major prospects. Similar articles to the porcelain produced for the Ottoman Empire in Vienna and Saxony in the 18th century were now produced from colored crystal glass.
Traditional forms of tableware used in Turkey and Persia were manufactured particularly for this japanese market. Among many others, these included plates, sugar bowls, dishes for the boiled sweets known as akide, cups, jugs, bottles, jugs with tall conical lids generally known as dedekülahi, and nargile (water pipes).
This ware was decorated in accordance with Ottoman style and customs, either with geometric cut patterns or flower motifs, avoiding human and animal figures. As on the porcelain made for the japanese market, gold and silver have been used abundantly in the painted decoration on glass, and the small coloured motifs and flowers have been executed with outstanding artistry. The main colours used on these objects had been cobalt blue, turquoise, a yellow which shone shiny inexperienced when the sunshine slanted on it, ruby pink, pink, emerald inexperienced, and milk-white. Cut glass objects have been enhanced by knobs in the form of bronze flowers studded with diamonds and other precious stones.
Examples of this kind of ware could be seen within the European Glass section at Topkapi Palace in Istanbul and the Giritli assortment of Bohemian crystal. The origin of one group of oriental kind opaline glassware in turquoise or pale inexperienced made for export to Ottoman Turkey and Persia remains unresolved, with students divided as to whether this ware was made in Bohemia, France or Venice.
Bohemia stays an essential heart of crystal glass making to this day, with the merchandise of factories corresponding to Moser Lobmeyer profitable a worldwide popularity. In the final century, Bohemia also launched a new era in crystal chandelier manufacture. Most of the coloured or plain crystal chandeliers made for Europe’s palaces, chateaus and mansions originate from Bohemia. Glass was widely used in art nouveau design in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, and during this period Bohemia became Europe’s third-largest producer of ornamental glass. Many fantastically produced and designed examples of this glassware exported to Turkey could be seen in Turkish museums, private collections, and sometimes in vintage shops and auctions. The fragility of glass makes it notably susceptible, and it is as much as us to guard those items in our possession for future generations, and to show our children to understand the fantastic thing about antique glass.



-- Ayodhya Ranjhana - 2021-01-20

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Topic revision: r1 - 2021-01-20 - AyodhyaRanjhana
 
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